Cosmetic Dentistry Blog Cosmetic and General Dentistry Questions Answered

June 20, 2019

My crown on my front tooth isn’t staying on


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Dr. Hall,
I read your last answer about the crown not staying on. I have a root canal in tooth # 10 (upper left lateral incisor). The crown stayed on for about ten years. Then, about 1 1/2 years ago, my dentist replaced it. During the time since the new crown was placed, it has come off several times and been recemented. It never has felt really secure. Do you think there is hope for the crown to stay on if re-cemented? There isn’t really much to cement it to.
Thanks, Evelyn from California
 
Evelyn,

There should be a way to get this crown to stay on better. The problem is probably in the design of the crown preparation, and not in the strength of the cement or bonding material. If that’s true, it would mean you need a new crown for this to stay on. That’s just a guess. But let me give you an explanation of what can be done when a tooth has had a root canal treatment and there isn’t much tooth left to hold on to.

I wrote in an earlier post that the main reason crowns come off is that they aren’t prepared with proper retention form. Now, if there isn’t much tooth structure left, it isn’t possible to properly prepare the tooth. So what I would do to improve the retention would be to cement a fiberglass post deep into the canal. It needs to be a post with some flexibility to it, or under the stress of oral function the post could fracture the tooth root. I would then bond to the tooth and the post some core material.

Here are photographs of a case of a crown on a front tooth in a situation like this, courtesy of the dental journal Dentistry Today.
close-up photo of a broken down lateral incisor tooth with a fiberglass post fitted into the root canal spaceIn this first photograph, some of the root canal filling material has been removed and a fiberglass post is fitted into the canal. The post needs to go deeply into the tooth, but not so far as to require removal of all of the root canal filling material. About 2/3 of the length of the tooth would be good.

A close-up photograph of the same lateral incisor, with core material added and the core trimmed into a crown preparation.Then the post is bonded into the canal and a core material is built up. Composite is usually used for both the bonding of the post into the canal and the core. That composite is then shaped into a conventional crown preparation as shown here.

Built up like this, the tooth should be able to retain a crown easily. I will note that there has to be some tooth structure remaining. The amount of tooth remaining in this case is about the minimum amount needed. If a front tooth, say, is broken off level with the gums, and the retention has to come completely from the post, it won’t work. Normal oral function will create twisting stresses on the post and will eventually dislodge it.

I hope this is helpful.
Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

September 28, 2017

I want to avoid getting a crown on my front tooth, after a root canal


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Hello Dr. Hall,
Back in May 21st I had my front upper tooth knocked out. It was put back in, bonded and set back into place. I had a root canal done on it as well. I’m noting that the color is slightly off (more yellow) than the rest of my teeth. My dentist said that I would probably have to get a crown after my last visit, but looking online I see that a crown for a front tooth may not be a good idea. How can I preserve the whiteness of this tooth without needing a crown? Thank you for your time.
– Joseph from Staten Island, NY

Joseph,
You’re right. A crown on a front tooth, while it strengthens it against chipping, actually weakens the tooth against lateral stresses. So if you have a heavy bite at all, it is at greater risk of breaking off.

After a root canal treatment, a tooth tends to discolor. But that discoloration can be greatly lessened by cleaning out the inside of the crown from any root canal filling materials such as gutta percha or cement. If it is starting to discolor already (four months after treatment), the dentist has left some of those materials inside the visible part of the tooth.

Here’s what I would do.

Go to one of our recommended cosmetic dentists in Manhattan, Queens, or New Jersey, and have them clean out the inside of the crown. Since the tooth has begun to discolor already, it would be a good idea to have them do internal bleaching. Then you could have them fit the tooth with a fiberglass post inside and seal the opening, and you should be good for several years before it starts to discolor.

Then, when it discolors, I would just have them do a single porcelain veneer to correct that. This would require a fair amount of expertise in appearance-related dentistry to match the color of the adjacent tooth, but I’m confident that any dentist we list would be able to get that to look great for you.

Oh, one other thing. Since this is a replanted front tooth, you want to have it x-rayed again to make sure you don’t have any external resorption. It’s possible that your body could be eating away at the root. That happens sometimes with these replanted teeth. Be sure to find that out before you invest much money into this tooth.

And just a comment about your dentist. It looks like he or she did a nice job of saving your tooth—did all the right things, and is probably an excellent dentist. But these demanding aesthetic problems are over the head of the vast majority of general dentists.

I hope this is helpful.

Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

August 29, 2016

Removing a metal post in a tooth


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Dr. Hall,
I just found out my dentist inserted a stainless steel post into my root canal tooth–my upper molar. A temporary crown is placed over it now and a permanent crown will be placed in a week. My question is can the post be removed and a zirconia or carbon post (I don’t think he does those) be put in instead? I don’t want steel in my mouth even though he said it’s encased. My ears have been pulsating since. Please tell me it’s removable!
– Linda from Brooklyn

Linda,
Yes, a stainless steel post probably can be removed, though there may be some risk involved.

Let me give a little background on this to frame my answer.

stainless steel dental post

A metal post in a lower molar

When a tooth is “bombed out,” needing a root canal treatment and with little tooth structure left, a dental post is often placed in the tooth. This post can serve a couple of purposes. For front teeth and premolars, it can strengthen the tooth against horizontal fracture. For molars and any other teeth, it can also provide additional retention for the crown. If there is little of the original natural crown of the tooth left, the post, anchored in the root of the tooth, will help retain a buildup in the tooth, and the buildup retains the crown.

There is a history to the material out of which the post is made. In the 1970s and earlier, stainless steel was the material of choice for prefabricated dental posts. However, in the 1980s it was discovered that even though a post is cemented inside the tooth and doesn’t come into contact with the bloodstream at all, metal ions were found to leach through the tooth and into the bloodstream. Stainless steel contains nickel, which causes sensitivity reactions in many people (see some of our blog posts on metal allergies). To guard against potential reactions as you seem to be experiencing, many dental practices, including mine, switched to titanium, which is not only very strong but the most biocompatible metal available. In the 1990s, other materials were introduced for posts, including carbon fiber and fiberglass. More recently, zirconia has been used for posts. Zirconia is a ceramic that has high flexural strength and is also very biocompatible.

So yes, you have a legitimate concern about this stainless steel post. Your dentist should get with current technology. From what you are telling me, he isn’t into any of these newer post materials, most of which have been around for twenty years or more.

Now, as to removing the post that is in there, that could be tricky and, depending on the situation, you may not want to trust your dentist to do this but may want to see a root canal specialist or another dentist who feels comfortable doing this. It depends on how deeply the post goes into the root of your tooth and how well it is cemented. It may be possible to dislodge it with an ultrasonic tip. I remember one patient I had who was adamant about removing several metal posts in his teeth. I don’t remember why his posts were so difficult to remove, but I ended up telling him that I had to drill out all of these posts and I had him sign a paper acknowledging that I had told him there were serious risks in doing this, that I could perforate the roots of any or all of these teeth, leading to the loss of the teeth. He was willing to accept those risks. The good news is that I got out all of the posts without any accidents, but I remember it was very stressful for me.

If you feel that you are experiencing a sensitivity reaction to the post, I would put a halt to the crown procedure until you can have the post removed. Cementing a crown on the tooth will only make it more difficult, as your dentist would have to start by drilling through the crown, possibly ruining the crown.

Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

August 1, 2016

Can broken-off teeth be restored?


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Dr. Hall,
My husband has 2 front teeth that are broken off. The roots are intact. Other than a partial plate or a bridge is it possible to have root canals and caps?
– Jen from Ontario

Jen,

Yes, it may be possible to save a front tooth that is broken off, by doing a root canal, putting a post in that root canal, and putting a crown [cap] on the post, if there isn’t too much of the tooth broken off. It depends on the kind of bite your husband has. And it depends on the attitude of the dentist. Many dentists, I can tell you, may not want to attempt that. And recently, as dental implants have become more reliable and more popular, there may be less tendency of dentists to want to try to save teeth like this.

The mechanics of fixing a front tooth like this are tricky. A lot of dentists won’t realize that the main force working against them is a rotational force on the tooth. The front teeth are kind of roundish at the root. Then if the dentist puts a round post into the root, the resultant restoration doesn’t offer much resistance to rotational forces. Over time, then, those rotational forces can work the post loose. A way to brace against those rotational forces is to put two posts into the root.

Another problem that many dentists may not realize about this situation is that the post can end up cracking the root. There is a tendency to think that a rigid post would be stronger, and it may be stronger. But when tipping forces occur against the root, a rigid post will transfer those forces to deep inside the root where the tooth is thinner and they can crack the root. So flexible posts, such as carbon fiber or fiberglass posts should be used on front teeth.

Dr. Hall

Do you have a comment or a question or anything else to add? We’d love to hear from you. Enter your comment below.

Click here to ask Dr. Hall a question of your own.

About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

March 4, 2016

Fixing a broken front tooth on a 7-year-old

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Dr. Hall,
When I was about 7, I slipped on a monkey bar and it cracked and chipped my right upper front tooth. I didn’t get it fixed right away, but a couple of years later the dentist did a root canal and I also had it filled to kind of match my other front tooth. But now it looks horrible because it’s smaller than my other tooth and it’s discoloring. Would there be a way for my smaller discolored tooth to match my bigger front tooth? And to get rid of the discoloration?
– Vance in Arizona

Vance,
This could be a real problem, if you ask your family dentist to do this. But if you go to an expert cosmetic dentist, such as the ones I recommend on this website, it’s a fairly straightforward case that should require a single all-porcelain crown.

Many cosmetic dentists, me included, won’t recommend doing a porcelain crown on a patient in their teens or younger because often the tooth hasn’t fully erupted. If the tooth continues to erupt after the crown has been placed, the margin ends up very visible, which is not good. So they will repair the tooth with composite, if that is an option, and then do the crown in the patient’s late teens or maybe a little later. And since a composite filling isn’t as strong as a crown, making it a little smaller can keep the composite from breaking.

One problem, though, with composite on the front tooth is that it can be susceptible to staining. An expert cosmetic dentist will have a selection of highly stain-resistant composites to use, but most dentists will just stock all-purpose composites. And then, the tooth itself is subject to discoloration once it has had a root canal treatment.

Here is a photo. discolored front toothThis isn’t Vance, but is a photo of another patient who has had a root canal treatment on a front tooth and a composite repair, similar to what Vance would have had. The composite covers about 1/3 of the tooth, consisting of the lower left corner as we are looking at it. You can see that the composite, while it is lighter than the rest of the tooth, is darker than the adjacent tooth. So the composite has discolored some, and the tooth has discolored more.

When a front tooth has a root canal treatment, it also tends to become more brittle over time and more prone to breaking. Doing a crown on such a tooth will actually weaken it more against lateral stresses, which are the types of stresses to which front teeth are most susceptible. So it is wise to put a post in the tooth to strengthen it. A metal post can show through slightly. An expert cosmetic dentist would use a white or translucent fiberglass post. A general family dentist also would probably jump right in and do the crown, but an expert cosmetic dentist would probably want to bleach the tooth first because the darker tooth structure would have to be blocked out making it more opaque than the adjacent tooth, when you want these two front teeth to look exactly the same.

Done correctly, the dentist should get a perfect match with the adjacent natural tooth. It will likely take several try-in appointments to get the color match perfect, and it will require teamwork between the dentist and the ceramist to do this. The tendency of family dentists is to get the color “close enough” and be satisfied with that. But here is a photograph of a case done by one of our mynewsmile network dentists. One of these front four teeth is a porcelain crown, but it is impossible to tell, from the front, which one.

porcelain crown on a front tooth

My recommendation—go to one of our recommended cosmetic dentists and get this done right.

– Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

October 26, 2015

The cheapest, easiest, fastest way to fix a front tooth that broke off at the gumline

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Dr. Hall,
I recently broke my front tooth off, right below the gumline. I am looking for the cheapest, easiest, fastest way to fix this. I am 100% against implants.
– Harley from Nebraska

Harley,
Are you really asking me this? I don’t think you really mean the question the way it came out.

For the cheapest, easiest, fastest way to fix your broken front tooth, go to Walmart, buy a tube of Superglue, and glue your tooth back in. Cheap, easy, fast.

Problem is, the repair will only last for a couple of days. But long-lasting wasn’t on your list of requirements.

Another solution, not as cheap but also easy and fast and, as a bonus, long-lasting, would be to have a dentist bond a glob of composite onto the broken part of the tooth, making a little mound. That would last a long time. It wouldn’t look very good, though, but looking good wasn’t on your list.

Let’s re-order your priorities and make it first, something that will look good, and second, something that will hold up long-term. To accomplish that, there are two options. And neither one is cheap, easy, or quick.

It could be possible to repair the tooth by placing a crown on the remaining root. But that would only work if there isn’t a lot of stress on this tooth. If you have a deep overbite or even just a strong bite, it would be hard to get the crown to stay on. But if you have a gentle bite, it could work. You would need to have a root canal treatment on the remnant of your tooth, then have a good, strong post that’s not completely rigid. Either a carbon fiber post or a fiberglass post would work. The stress on a front tooth is mostly lateral. If you have a rigid metal post going down into the root and then put stress on the crown of the tooth, that stress will transfer to the root through the post and tend to cause a root fracture. If the post has a little flexibility to it, however, it will not transfer stress to the root and thus not tend to fracture the root.

And better yet, I would place two posts side by side, to help resist rotational forces that would tend to weaken the bond to the tooth over time. All posts are perfectly round, so any twisting force on them will tend to dislodge them.

However, if there is any significant stress on this tooth, the only solution that will hold up over a long time would be replacing the tooth with a dental implant. This could cost twice as much as a root canal, posts, and crown, and would take substantially longer because of the healing time required. But it would look good and last much longer. Doing the crown first could have you ending up with the dental implant eventually because the crown would fail.

Bottom line—sometimes the cheapest dental solution is the most expensive, the quickest solution takes the longest, and the easiest solution is the most complicated. It’s generally best to just fix it right in the first place and then be done.

– Dr. Hall

Do you have a comment? We’d love to hear from you. Enter your comment below.

Click here to ask Dr. Hall a question of your own.

About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

March 2, 2013

Do you need a crown on a front tooth with a root canal treatment?

Just had a root canal on the tooth right next to the front tooth. Is it necessary for a crown to be put on ? Can a post only be put in and if so, repair the discoloration with a porcelain veneer ?
– Ann from New York

Ann,
There’s a simple answer to your question and a more thoughtful answer, and I’ll give you both.

The simple answer is that dentists were taught in dental school that if a tooth has a root canal treatment, it is weakened, and thus it needs a crown to strengthen it and prevent tooth fracture. Plus, after a root canal treatment, a tooth will turn dark, so a front tooth should have a crown to preserve its appearance.

The more thoughtful answer differs from this approach in two ways. First, on the “likelihood to break” issue:
– Yes, a tooth is weaker after it has had a root canal treatment. But there is a difference between back teeth and front teeth. Back teeth, because they have a flat chewing surface and cusps are prone to splitting – the chewing force comes down between the cusps and this pressure tends to force the cusps apart. A crown will prevent splitting of the tooth. A front tooth, however, doesn’t have these forces. The risk with a front tooth is that chewing creates a horizontal force that may break off the tooth. A crown, since it requires removing 1-2 millimeters all around the circumference of the tooth, will actually weaken it against these horizontal shear forces and make it MORE likely to fracture.

On the discoloration issue, yes, teeth with root canal treatments will discolor. However, if the root canal cement and the root canal filling material are carefully cleaned out of the inside of the crown of the treated tooth, that discoloration will take years to occur and will be mild.

My preference for a front tooth would depend on the amount of healthy tooth structure remaining in the tooth. If, say, 70-80% of the tooth is healthy tooth structure, I would recommend restoring the tooth simply with a translucent or white fiberglass post and composite. Then, when the tooth begins to discolor, that could be corrected with a porcelain veneer or a crown at that point. If substantial amounts of tooth structure are missing, I would use the same white or translucent post with an all-ceramic crown.

Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

April 24, 2012

Tips for root canal treatment on a porcelain veneer tooth

Dr. Hall, For the past two months I have been experiencing slight pain, pressure, discomfort and even feeling as if my two front teeth are going to fall off. Hot or Cold do not bother my teeth. Approximately 9 years ago I chipped one and also had decay on my two front teeth. As a result, veneers were placed. Never had any problems until now. I went to a dentist that has been doing my cleanings and she did an x-ray and noticed inflammation on a nerve. Advised to take ibuprofen for 7 days for inflammation. I followed her instruction and it did work for 1-2 weeks until the same symptoms came back. I went back she took another x-ray, noticed the same inflammation. She stated if it continued then possible root canal would be the next step. However nerve had no damage, which it confused me as why she would do a root canal? I was advised from a friend that sometimes the nerve can be infected. I had some amoxicillin at home and took it for 5 days the pain once again was gone. Now 2 weeks later symptoms are back. My biggest fear is that veneers are going to fall off, is that possible? Even saliva feels weird around my front teeth only. Can you tell me if it may be possible for root canal?
– Sylvia from California

Sylvia,
I’m at a little bit of a disadvantage not being able to see this myself, but at least from what you’re telling me it seems pretty clear that your tooth needs a root canal treatment. And I will tell you why I think that.

I am interpreting the “inflammation on a nerve” that you are telling me about as signs on the x-ray of pulpal inflammation. When the pulp of a tooth is inflamed, often the first sign is either a widening of the periodontal ligament space around the end of the root, or a breakdown in the bony lining of the socket of the tooth, also occurring at the end of the root. When anything shows up on the x-ray like this that indicates inflammation of the pulp of the tooth, it is pretty certain that you are going to sooner or later need to have that root canal treatment.

Taking some amoxicillin you had at home for a tooth infection isn’t a good idea. But the response of your tooth – the pain went away and then came back two weeks later – is another pretty certain indication that the tooth is infected, which means you need a root canal treatment. The problem with having taken the amoxicillin is that now you are that much more likely to have an amoxicillin-resistant infection in your tooth. You can never wipe out a tooth infection with antibiotics alone because the antibiotics have no way to get inside the tooth. So the infection will always come back, and the next time it’s always more likely to be an antibiotic-resistant infection.

Your porcelain veneer won’t fall off this tooth if you get a root canal treatment. But let me give you some helpful advice on how to have this done so that you preserve the esthetics of your smile. And this is something that many dentists don’t know, unless they are really expert in appearance-related dentistry. There is a strong potential for a tooth with a root canal treatment to turn dark. That dark color will show through the porcelain veneer and will require it to be done over again unless the dentist takes this simple precaution. After the root canal treatment, the dentist needs to clean out all root canal filling materials and cement from the insides of the visible part of the tooth – the part that shows above the gumline. Then she should cement a translucent fiberglass post inside the tooth to reinforce it and fill up the rest of the inside of the tooth with a light-colored composite material that will preserve the original color of the tooth. It is the root canal filling material and cement inside that cause most of the discoloration of the tooth. But by cleaning all that out and filling it as I have described, it won’t permanently prevent any discoloration of the tooth, but it may put it off for a good five to ten years. At that point you can get new porcelain veneers or go to a crown on the tooth.

Show this e-mail to your dentist, and she can contact me if she has any further questions.

Having this delayed response to the traumatic injury and decay you experienced 9 years ago isn’t unusual at all. Most dentists have seen this sort of thing before.

Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

April 4, 2012

What treatment is needed for a calcified root canal?

Hi Dr Hall,
First of all I appreciate the good work that you are doing.
Regarding my question: my daughter had yellow staining on her right front tooth. The doc did an x-ray and said the root canal is getting calcified and suggested a root canal. After the root canal we suggested to leave it as such but he said the tooth would fracture and a crown is a must. The crown he suggested was LAVA. We were not happy with the finish so we are trying an e.max or perhaps a metal-free ceramic. To push us to decide fast he frightened us that the gums are falling down. But I am happy I did not go with a badly made crown. I would like to know whether I have been taken for a ride and two which is the best crown to use? My gratitude for your enlightening blog I shall recommend to all my colleagues. My prayers and God Bless
– Bransdon from India

Bransdon,
I’m glad to be able to help.

First of all, I’m not sure why your daughter needs a root canal on this tooth. Just because the canal is getting calcified? As long as it’s not infected, she doesn’t need a root canal treatment. Calcification of a root canal is just the depositing of extra dentin inside the tooth. It  can happen after a traumatic injury – it’s the tooth’s attempt to protect itself against infection of the canal. Also, all teeth tend to have their canals get a little calcified as we get older.

Second, even if she has a root canal treatment, she doesn’t necessarily need a crown on this front tooth. While a back tooth that has had a root canal treatment will be prone to fracture if it doesn’t have a crown, a crown on a front tooth with a root canal treatment will weaken the neck of the tooth. A back tooth has a chewing surface. Chewing pressure on this surface will tend to push apart the cusps of the tooth, possibly causing it to split. But if a front tooth breaks, it tends to break around the neck of the tooth, and it just breaks off entirely at that point rather than splitting as back teeth do.

The Lava crown and the e.max crown are very similar to each other. They both have a very strong lithium disilicate base overlaid with a feldspathic porcelain, but they are made by different companies. They are a good crown for dentists who aren’t very good at cosmetic dentistry procedures, but they require aggressive tooth reduction, which will further weaken this tooth.

In India, you have to be very careful with getting crowns or any type of complicated dental care. I’m not all that familiar with their standards there, but I know they aren’t as high as they are here in the United States. But the best thing to do for a front tooth that does not have a large filling, which sounds like it is your daughter’s situation, is, after the root canal treatment (if it needs that), to then have a translucent fiberglass post placed to strengthen the tooth. Before placing the post, all of the root canal cement and root canal filling materials should be cleaned out from the inside of the visible part of the tooth – this will help insure against discoloration. If the color is off, I would have that fixed with a thin porcelain veneer. That will help the tooth retain its maximum strength. And I would try to seek out a dentist who is somewhat familiar with cosmetic dentistry procedures. There are dentists in India who are members of the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, and I would seek out one of those. (You can go to the AACD website and pull up a membership list.)

I do not recommend, in the United States, relying on membership in the AACD for any type of assurance that a dentist will do good cosmetic dental work. But in India, it does show a strong level of commitment to cosmetic dentistry to be willing to fly to the United States to learn these procedures.

– Dr. Hall

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About David A. Hall

Dr. David Hall was one of the first 40 accredited cosmetic dentists in the world. He practiced cosmetic dentistry in Iowa, and in 1990 earned his accreditation with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. He is now president of Infinity Dental Web, a company in Mesa, Arizona that does complete Internet marketing for dentists.

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